Tutorial

Configurare Server FTP su CentOS

Oggi vogliamo mostarvi come installare e configurare un server FTP su CentOS (v 6.5).

Seguendo tutti gli step, la configurazione dovrebbe funzionare anche su RHEL 6 (e superiori) e su Scientific Linux 6 (e superiori).

Il nostro server FTP avrà come indirizzo IP 192.168.1.200, voi dovrete settare quello del vostro server.

Innanzitutto è necessario fermare (se presente) il firewall.

[root@mainserver ~]# service iptables stop
iptables: Flushing firewall rules:                                                     [ OK ] iptables: Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter                            [ OK ] iptables: Unloading modules:                                             [ OK ] [root@mainserver ~]# service ip6tables stop
ip6tables: Flushing firewall rules:                                 [ OK ] ip6tables: Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter                               [ OK ] ip6tables: Unloading modules:                                                       [ OK ] [root@mainserver ~]# chkconfig iptables off
[root@mainserver ~]# chkconfig ip6tables off
[root@mainserver ~]#

Ora bisogna installare il servizio FTP:

[root@mainserver ~]# yum install -y vsftpd
[root@mainserver ~]# Start vsftpd service.
[root@mainserver ~]# service vsftpd start
Starting vsftpd for vsftpd:                                              [ OK ] [root@mainserver ~]#

Attivare vsftpd a livello di multiuser:

[root@mainserver ~]# chkconfig vsftpd on

Ora è necessario andare a modificare il file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf .

Togliere i commenti dalle righe evidenziate in grassetto.

[root@mainserver ~]# cat /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
# Example config file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf
#
# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file
# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.
#
# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.
# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd’s
# capabilities.
#
# Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware – allowed by default if you comment this out).
anonymous_enable=NO
#
# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
local_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
write_enable=YES
#
# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd’s)
local_umask=022
#
# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
#anon_upload_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
# new directories.
#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
#
# Activate directory messages – messages given to remote users when they
# go into a certain directory.
dirmessage_enable=YES
#
# The target log file can be vsftpd_log_file or xferlog_file.
# This depends on setting xferlog_std_format parameter
xferlog_enable=YES
#
# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
connect_from_port_20=YES
#
# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
# a different user. Note! Using “root” for uploaded files is not
# recommended!
#chown_uploads=YES
#chown_username=whoever
#
# The name of log file when xferlog_enable=YES and xferlog_std_format=YES
# WARNING – changing this filename affects /etc/logrotate.d/vsftpd.log
#xferlog_file=/var/log/xferlog
#
# Switches between logging into vsftpd_log_file and xferlog_file files.
# NO writes to vsftpd_log_file, YES to xferlog_file
xferlog_std_format=YES
#
# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
#idle_session_timeout=600
#
# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.
#data_connection_timeout=120
#
# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the
# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.
#nopriv_user=ftpsecure
#
# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not
# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,
# however, may confuse older FTP clients.
#async_abor_enable=YES
#
# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore
# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII
# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.
# Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service
# attack (DoS) via the command “SIZE /big/file” in ASCII mode. vsftpd
# predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the
# raw file.
# ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.
ascii_upload_enable=YES
ascii_download_enable=YES
#
# You may fully customise the login banner string:
ftpd_banner=Welcome to KELIWEB FTP service.
#
# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently
# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.
#deny_email_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd/banned_emails
#
# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home
# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of
# users to NOT chroot().
#chroot_local_user=YES
#chroot_list_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list
#
# You may activate the “-R” option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by
# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large
# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as “ncftp” and “mirror” assume
# the presence of the “-R” option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.
ls_recurse_enable=YES
#
# When “listen” directive is enabled, vsftpd runs in standalone mode and
# listens on IPv4 sockets. This directive cannot be used in conjunction
# with the listen_ipv6 directive.
listen=YES
#
# This directive enables listening on IPv6 sockets. To listen on IPv4 and IPv6
# sockets, you must run two copies of vsftpd with two configuration files.
# Make sure, that one of the listen options is commented !!
#listen_ipv6=YES
pam_service_name=vsftpd
userlist_enable=YES
tcp_wrappers=YES
use_localtime=YES

Ora è necessario avviare il servizio vsftpd e provare a connettersi al server ftp.

[root@mainserver ~]# service vsftpd restart
Shutting down vsftpd: [ OK ] Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: [ OK ]

Connettersi al server FTP. (attenzione: l’utente Root non è abilitato a connettersi all’ftp per impostazioni di default. Quindi creeremo un user chiamato keliweb)

[root@mainserver ~]# useradd keliweb
[root@mainserver ~]# passwd keliweb
Changing password for user keliweb.
New password:
BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

Connettersi con il nuovo utente creato (keliweb nel nostro caso)

[root@mainserver ~]# ftp 192.168.1.200
-bash: ftp: command not found
[root@mainserver ~]#

Viene restituito un errore in quanto non è installato il package ftp. Ecco come installarlo.

[root@mainserver ~]# yum install -y ftp
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
–> Running transaction check
—> Package ftp.i686 0:0.17-51.1.el6 will be installed
–> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
================================================================================
Package Arch Version Repository Size
================================================================================
Installing:
ftp i686 0.17-51.1.el6 localrepo 55 k
Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install 1 Package(s)
Total download size: 55 k
Installed size: 91 k
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
Installing : ftp-0.17-51.1.el6.i686 1/1
Verifying : ftp-0.17-51.1.el6.i686 1/1
Installed:
ftp.i686 0:0.17-51.1.el6
Complete!
[root@mainserver ~]#

Ci connettiamo di nuovo al nostro server FTP

[root@mainserver ~]# ftp 192.168.1.200
Connected to 192.168.1.200 (192.168.1.200).
220 Welcome to KELIWEB FTP service.
Name (192.168.1.200:root): keliweb
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
500 OOPS: cannot change directory:/home/keliweb
Login failed.
ftp>

L’errore mostrato indica che l’user non può accedere alla sua root directory.
Scrivere exit e tornare alla console per permettere al daemon vsftpd di cambiare le home directory degli user.
Per fare ciò è necessario aggiornare la configurazione SELinux:

[root@mainserver ~]# setsebool -P ftp_home_dir on

Finalmente possiamo connetterci al nostro server FTP.

[root@mainserver ~]# ftp 192.168.1.200
Connected to 192.168.1.200 (192.168.1.200).
220 Welcome to KELIWEB FTP service.
Name (192.168.1.200:root): keliweb
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230 Login successful.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> pwd
257 "/home/keliweb"
ftp>

Il nostro server FTP funziona perfettamente!

keliweb business

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